Background Information | Scholarly Information & Peer Review | Searching for Books | Primary & Secondary Sources | Searching for Articles | Finding Articles | Reading Articles | Citing Your Sources | Off-Campus Access | RefWorks | Asking for Help |
Contact Prof. Matthew Harrick,
your Children & Youth Studies Librarian, for help!
An excellent place to start researching a new topic is by getting an overview or even in-depth background information. Children and Youth Studies is a multidisciplinary subject, so there will be background information in many different areas. The Brooklyn College Department of Children and Youth Studies provides a breakdown of the many disciplines represented (http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/web/academics/schools/socialsciences/interdisciplinary/undergraduate/childrens.php), including resources that will help you begin your research. Below are examples of topics/sites you could visit to begin the research process:
- Education: The U.S. Department of Education (http://www.ed.gov/) and the National Education Association (NEA: www.nea.org.) provide information about education initiatives in the U.S. The United Nations Education, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/) will provide a more global look at education.
- History: Children & Youth in History (http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/) is a world history resource that provides access to sources, including primary resources, about young people from the past to the present.
- Health: The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene provide information about health related issues as it pertains to NYC, including information about campaigns targeting specific health issues affecting children (http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/dpho/dpho.shtml).
- Data: www.ChildStats.gov is a website that provides statistical information collected by the Forum of Child and Family Statistics. The site features statistics on children and families in the United States across a range of domains, including family and social environment, economic circumstances, health care, physical environment and safety, behavior, education and health.
Another way to get background information is to consult an appropriate reference work, like an encyclopedia or dictionary. You can search hundreds of reference titles across disciplines, including Children & Youth Studies, via Gale Virtual Reference Library. Such reference databases are a far better alternative to using Wikipedia or Google.
Scholarly information is based in scholarship and research, and is produced by the scholars or experts in a particular field. Much scholarly material that is published in books and academic journals goes through the peer-review process in which a manuscript is reviewed by independent researchers (referees or peer-reviewers) to evaluate the contribution for authority and accuracy. You can read more about the difference between scholarly journals, popular or opinion magazines and trade publications here.
Use the library catalog to search for books and e-books at Brooklyn College and all CUNY libraries. If our copy of a book is checked out, you can have it delivered from another CUNY school by clicking the Request a Copy button.
Basic Search Types in the Catalog (Click on Guided Search for advanced search options.)
Search for your terms in the subject, title and author fields.
e.g. children and laws Tip: Connect two or more keywords with and.
e.g. youth and health
e.g. education and “Lisa Delpit” Tip:Find books with title and author as key terms. Use quotation marks to search for an exact phrase or a proper noun.
Title begins with...
Use when you know the exact title of a book.
e.g. psychology of childhood (not the psychology of childhood) Tip: Do not use initial articles (a, an, the, la, les etc.).
e.g. child welfare Tip: Type just the first words of a title, e.g. this search returns: child welfare: the challenges of collaboration
Author, last name first...
Use when you do not have a book title, or you want to find other books written by an author.
e.g. cushman kathleen Tip: Always type the author’s last name first.
e.g. kellett mary
e.g. delpit lisa
Subject begins with...
Search the Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) for your topic.
e.g. Child Abuse
e.g. Social work with children—United States
e.g. Piaget, Jean , 1896- Tip: Use subject if you are looking for books about an individual’s work. If you do not know the exact subject heading, try keyword subject or ask a librarian.
Search for your terms anywhere in the title. Placing quotes around key terms in the title of a item can help you locate it in the catalog.
e.g. “child welfare”
e.g. “child development”
e.g. “foster care”
Tip: Use keyword title when you don’t know the exact title.
Search for your terms anywhere in the subject field.
e.g. “child psychology”
e.g. “public education" and children
e.g. “adolescent development”
Tip: Use keyword subject when you don’t know what the subject terms are.
Often students will use both primary and secondary resources when conducting research. Primary resources provide firsthand evidence of historical events. They are generally unpublished materials such as manuscripts, photographs, maps, artifacts, audio and video recordings, oral histories, postcards, and posters. In some instances, published materials can also be viewed as primary materials for the period in which they were written; such as newspapers articles written during the time period being researched. In contrast, secondary resources, such as textbooks, synthesize and interpret primary materials.
The best way to find published, scholarly articles on your topic is to use an article database, which allows you to search by topic and see in which journal and in which issue an article appears. Some databases (such as Academic Search Premier and JSTOR) cover journals in many fields, while others (such as America: History & Life, Biological Abstracts, or ERIC) only cover journals in a specific field (History, Biology, and Education, respectively).
Choosing a Database
Library databases can be found on the library’s home page under the Research tab (click on Articles & Databases).
To access library databases from home, see the Off-Campus Access section of this guide.
The following is a short list of the library databases most frequently used to find articles for Children & Youth Studies.
- SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO): This database provides comprehensive coverage of sociological topics, including research regarding children and youth and other related topics.
- Social Services Abstracts: This database provides bibliographic coverage of current research focused on social work, human services and related areas, including social welfare, social policy and community development. Abstracts are provided for journal articles, dissertations, and citations to book reviews.
- JSTOR: JSTOR offers full-text access to archival scholarly journals. It offers both multidisciplinary and discipline-specific collections, covering such topics as Art, Business, History, Language & Literature, Mathematics, Music, Ecology, Sociology, & Botany. JSTOR includes journal content, primary sources, images, and more across the humanities, social sciences, and sciences. Because of JSTOR's archival mission, there is approximately a 1-5 year gap between the most recently published journal issue and the content available in the database.
For a full list of all Children & Youth Studies databases (and other resources), see the subject guide.
Search Tips for Library Databases
Consider Your Topic
Having a clear, manageable topic for your research is key to research success. As you think about your topic, consider how you can specify the search terms during the research process.
AREA OF STUDY
(Different words could be used for the same age group)
Be aware that there may be more than one term that means the same thing, or something very similar.
For example, if you were doing research on “youths,” you might also consider using the words “children” and “adolescents” as you search for information.
Consider Descriptors (controlled vocabulary)
Many databases also use specific terms called descriptors that are assigned to articles on that topic. Once you know the descriptors for your topic it can make it easier to pull all articles on the same topic together at the same time. You will find descriptors in database results.
Once you identify the terms (keywords or descriptors) applicable to your questions, put them together with Boolean operators such as AND (for more precision in your search), OR (to enlarge the pool of results when more than one situation is concerned), or NOT (to exclude possible elements that might jeopardize quality for quantity in your results.)
For example, if you want to know “How did the British Industrial Revolution lead to child labor legislation?” your terms might be:
And your search might look like this:
“Industrial Revolution" AND “Britain” AND “Child Labor” AND “Legistation”
Each database has its own thesaurus to organize articles on certain topics. Take a look at the database’s thesaurus to see if it uses a different term if your search does not yield enough results on your topic.
Tip: It is recommended to put quotes around search terms that are phrases (contain more than one word). For example, placing quotes around “reading strategies” will locate articles for you in the databases containing the phrase “reading strategies.”
Consider Your Results
Once you do a search in a database, look at the results – are they what you expected?
- Too many results means you may want to consider narrowing your search – try adding a key term or concept to your search, or look for other ways to limit or focus your results (publication date, article type, etc.) Look at the results and see if you can determine which articles Do and Do Not meet your needs – look at the titles, the descriptors, and the abstracts – that’s the clue to refining your search..
- Too few results may mean you were too specific – try removing one key term or concept from your search, or try a more general search.
Remember – research is complex and can sometimes be frustrating! Try to approach it as an opportunity to learn – and don’t expect to find everything you want right away!
Here are a couple of online tutorials that further explore the techniques of database searching:
Full Text in an Article Database
Some databases provide the full text of some or all articles. If available, you can most likely download, print or email the article right then and there. Look for the words PDF, PDF Full Text, HTML Full Text somewhere around the citation to the article.
Locating Full Text via FindIt!
If you identify an article where full text is not available, try the Findit! Button. FindIt! opens a new window, and indicates if your article is available full text in another database that the Brooklyn College Library subscribes to. If it is, simply click the “Full Text Online” link to access the full text. If it is not available full text online, one of the options is to search the catalog to see whether the Library has it in print and/or to request the article via Interlibrary Loan.
Identify Full Text Online Journals via the E-Journals Finder
The E-Journals Finder will enable you to determine whether the Library subscribes to a particular journal online e.g. Early American Studies.
First: Choose E-Journals Finder on the Library’s home page: http://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu/
Second: Do a title search for your journal title in the E-Journals Finder. If we do have an online subscription, then you can link directly to it by clicking on the database provided. Note that years of coverage differ among databases, so check your citation.
Identify Print Journals in the Library Catalog
First: Choose Catalog from the Library’s home page at http://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu/, then choose “Journal Title Search” from the gold menu bar to search only “Journal Titles” in the CUNY system.
Second: Do a browse search for your journal title in the catalog. If we do have a subscription, click on Brooklyn to make sure we have the issue you need.
Information you might be presented with includes:
Microfilm: Journals on microfilm may be viewed with a reader/printer on the Lower Level.
Periodical Stacks: These stacks are located on the Lower Level and are where print copies of the journals are kept.
Holdings:These are the copies bound into volumes and shelved by call number. Note: pre-1980 bound journals are shelved at the back of the Lower Level on movable stacks.
Issues: These are the most recent issues, shelved by title in the Current Periodicals Section. Some current issues are held at the Periodicals Desk.
Web Resource: For some journal publishers, online access is listed in the library catalog, click URL to link. Use the E-Journals Finder for more complete listings of online journals.
Find Full Text Online with a Web Search
Search Engines: You can try searching for your article in your favorite search engine: Google, Bing, etc. — you never know! However, in many cases the full text is only available for a fee. Be sure to check the library’s holdings before you pay for any articles!
Search Tip: Put a string of text from the article title in “quotes” so it is searched as a phrase. Try adding the author’s last name.
Results Tip: You may be able to locate an article, but it may not be free. Consider the other options, including Interlibrary Loan, before paying.
Google Scholar: Google’s tool for searching scholarly literature usually returns an assortment of citations, links to abstracts, and links to full text. Note that most full text articles it links to are NOT free. However, Brooklyn College is part of the “Library Links” program that will link you to full text we subscribe to — so be sure to turn on library links in Scholar Preferences and link to Google Scholar from the library’s website so you are authenticated.
Can’t Find Your Article? Here are a few things you can do:
Ask a Reference Librarian for help. In person at the Reference Desk (1st floor); Via telephone at (718) 951-5628; Via chat at http://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu/help/ask/
Check to see if another CUNY or NYC library has the journal you’re looking for, and then go get it. The library catalog will show you journal holdings at other CUNY schools. You can then visit the CUNY school where you article is located. Remember to bring your Brooklyn College Identification Card if you visit another CUNY school’s library. You can also check the catalogs at the New York Public Library http://catalog.nypl.org/ and Brooklyn Public Library http://catalog.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/.
Request the article via Interlibrary Loan. Stop by the Reference Desk on the 1st floor for more information, or fill out the form online. Just remember that an ILL request for a journal article can take some time (although it’s often available within a few days)—so this won’t work if you need it immediately. And be sure to check the Brooklyn College Library’s holdings first!
Access resources through Academic Libraries of Brooklyn (ALB). The Academic Libraries of Brooklyn (ALB) is a consortium of eight academic libraries in Brooklyn. This cooperative program allows students, faculty and staff of any ALB member library to use the resources of the other member libraries, including reading and borrowing privileges. You need a current Brooklyn College ID and an ALB card to gain access to ALB member libraries. To obtain a card, consult a librarian at the Reference Desk.
Access resources through METRO. The Brooklyn College Library belongs to METRO, a New York regional cooperative with over 250 member libraries. For a membership directory, click here. Thanks to METRO, the Brooklyn College Library can provide you with occasional on-site access to these collections when your research requires it. A METRO card referral is issued by a reference librarian for the use, at a private university such as NYU or Columbia, of a specific book or journal that is not attainable at CUNY, through ILL, or in the public library. Under another METRO agreement, under very special circumstances, a subject collection may be consulted for a short period. A METRO referral does not allow the borrowing of the material. For policies of individual libraries, please consult the library's web site.
Structure of a scholarly article: Familiarity with the standard parts of an article, what the intent and purpose are of each, will make reading articles easier. This can be especially helpful for scanning an article to see if it is one you want to read more carefully.
Abstract – a summary of the purpose, methods and conclusions that can help you decide if the article is relevant to your research.
Introduction – provides a general overview and background of the study.
Literature Search – a review of research in the area up to the time of the study, giving additional background information and placing the study in its scholarly context.
Materials and Methods – This part is an elaboration of the procedures undertaken from start to finish, focus of the study, and how data are collected and organized to complete the experiment.
Results – a presentation of data gathered in the study, usually with some analysis.
Discussion – the author’s interpretation of the results of the study and the conclusions they draw from them.
References – listing of journal articles and other sources referred to by the author in preparing for the study. The references can be an extremely useful way to find additional sources for your own research.
Helpful resources for learning how to read scholarly articles more effectively are:
Short video from Purdue University Libraries
Short PDF paper from SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry
In scholarly writing, we are continually engaged with other people’s ideas: we read them in texts, hear them in lecture, discuss them in class, and incorporate them into our own writing. As a result, it is very important that we give credit where it is due. Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information.
To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use:
- another person’s idea, opinion, or theory;
- any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge;
- quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or
- paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.
adapted from: Indiana University Writing Tutorial Services http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml
To use subscription resources from the Brooklyn College Library while off-campus you must authenticate (i.e. log in) using your BC email username and password. When you are off campus and select any licensed electronic resource you will be presented with an authentication page requesting your login.
Students can get their Brooklyn College student email username and password online at the BC WebCentral Portal <http://portal.brooklyn.edu/>. Clicking on the "My Info" tab, you will find your student email ID.
- Student email IDs assigned Summer 2014 or later are your CUNYFirst user ID followed by @bcacad.local, like this: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Student email IDs assigned before Summer 2014 are made up of 2 letters and 4 numbers
Your authentication password is your BC email password, which depends on when you enrolled at BC:
- If you enrolled in the college starting Summer 2014 or later, your password is the month and day of your birthday plus the last 5 digits of your CUNYFirst EmpID. The format is MMDDEEEEE.
- If you enrolled in the college starting Summer 2008 or later, your email password is the month and day of your birthday plus the last 5 digits of your Student ID number (SSN). The format is MMDDSSSSS.
- If you enrolled in the college in Spring 2008 or earlier, your email password is your full 9-digit Student ID (SSN).
For more detailed instructions, please see the WebCentral Help page on accessing your email information.
For faculty and staff who do not have a Brooklyn College email account, an application may be downloaded at: http://infotech.brooklyn.cuny.edu/pdf/emailapp.pdf. You may download the Adobe Acrobat Reader for free at http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html.
In the space provided, enter your BC email ID and password to access electronic databases from off-campus.
Problems with authentication should be reported to the ITS Help Desk. If you cannot get past the login screen for off-campus access to electronic resources, even if you know you're entering the correct BC email ID and password, you've probably been locked out of the EZ-Proxy server. This is common if you attempt to log in unsuccessfully too many times. In this situation, please contact the ITS Help Desk by calling (718) 677-6180 or emailing email@example.com. (Please note that the Help Desk's regular hours of operation are 9 AM to 5 PM on Mondays through Fridays.)
RefWorks is an online tool that allows you to:
- Format bibliographies and in-text citations automatically
- Create your own database of citations
- Import citations directly from library databases
- Organize your citations into folders
- Access your citations from any computer, anywhere in the world
The first time you use RefWorks, you will need to set up an account (see below).
Learn to Use RefWorks
- RefWorks Tutorials (take these whenever you want) provide step-by-step instruction. Access the tutorials in RefWorks’ “Help” menu or go to: http://www.refworks.com/tutorial/
- RefWorks Webinars (register for a specific webinar) - see the webinar schedule at: http://www.refworks.com/content/webinars/default.asp. Webinars include: RefWorks in 15 Minutes, RefWorks Fundamentals, and RefWorks Advanced Features.
- RefWorks Workshops at Brooklyn College - Check our website for details.
Create a RefWorks Account
- Go to http://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu and click “Databases”
- Select “RefWorks” from the alphabetical list
- Click “Sign up for an Individual Account”
- Complete the New User Information Form:
- Enter your name
- Create a login name for yourself
- Create and confirm a password
- Enter your Brooklyn College email address
- Indicate if you are an undergraduate student, graduate student, faculty member, etc.
- Indicate your major
- Type the code you see on your screen
- Click “Register”
Note: You must use your Brooklyn College email address. If you don’t know your BC email address, you can find it in BC WebCentral Portal (http://portal.brooklyn.edu/) by clicking on the “My Info” tab. Also: If you copy and paste your BC email address from BC WebCentral Portal to the New User Information Form, make sure there are no extra spaces at the end of your address. If there are extra spaces, delete them.
Ask-a-Librarian online chat 24/7: Click to instantly chat with a reference librarian anytime, any day.
Reference Desk: You can always come to speak in person to any librarian at the Reference Desk during library open hours. Or call the desk at 718-951-5628
Research Consultation: For in-depth research assistance, contact Prof. Matthew Harrick, the Children & Youth Studies librarian, to set up an appointment.