Scholarly practice requires that you cite your sources. Why?
To make your arguments more credible.
To show you've done your homework (i.e. your research).
To build a foundation for your paper.
To allow your readers to find the sources for themselves.
So you don't get accused of plagiarizing!1
Free and simple online tools for creating citations
You put in the information (title, author, etc.) and the tool creates the citation.Son of Citation Machine --> http://citationmachine.net
Make Citation --> http://www.makecitation.com
eTurabian --> http://www.eturabian.com
Free online tools for creating citations and bibliographies
These tools are more complex than simple citation tools, but they allow you to create and save an entire bibliography. They typically require registration.
Guides for creating (and checking!) your own citations.
Books (Available at the Reference Desk.)
Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print. [in MLA style]
Hacker, Diana, Nancy I. Sommers, and Marcy Horn. A Writer's Reference. 7th ed. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2011. Print. [in MLA style]
Scientific style and format: the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston (VA): Council of Science Eds; 2006. [in CSE style; in the library Stacks T11 .S386 2006]
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. [in APA style]
The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010. [in Chicago style]
Turabian, Kate L., John Grossman, and Alice Bennett. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 8th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013. [in Turabian style]
Research & Documentation Online (Diana Hacker): APA, MLA Chicago & CSE styles
Research and Citation Resources from the OWL at Purdue: APA, MLA & Chicago styles
Quoting, Paraphrasing, Attributing, and Avoiding Plagiarism
What is Quoting? Quoting is “to repeat (something written or said by another person) exactly”2 and is usually shown with quotation marks as it is here.
What is Paraphrasing? Paraphrasing is “a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form,”3 in other words, to put someone else's ideas into your own words.
What is Attribution? Attribution is “the act of establishing a particular person as the creator of a work,”4 which is done here with footnotes.
What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is “the use of another’s work, words, or ideas without attribution. The word “plagiarism” comes from the Latin word for “kidnapper” and is considered a form of theft, a breach of honesty in the academic community.”5
In scholarly writing, we are continually engaged with other people’s ideas: we read them in texts, hear them in lecture, discuss them in class, and incorporate them into our own writing. Acknowledging those authors' ideas and showing where your found them is an important element of scholarly writing. Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information.
Integrating Citations (quotes or paraphrases) into Your Writing.
It is important to bring other authors' ideas and words into your paper in as seemless and logical a way as possible: making it clear why/how the source is relevant to your argument. The most common way to incorporate quotes/paraphrases is to use a signal phrase that signals or shows that you are bringing in an outside source. Often a signal phrase names the author of the quoted material, thus introducing the material and making attribution at the same time. Other times the attribution is included in the citation (either parenthetical or in a footnote). Here are two examples:
With the author named:
In addition, the work of neurologist Oliver Sacks (1985, 1995) provides engagingly written case studies of savants and other individuals with specific brain damage that has affected their intelligences in intriguing ways.7
With the authors in a parenthetical citation:
Research has shown that people will sometimes use this "basking in reflected glory" effect for purposes of eliciting certain reactions from others (Cialdini & Richardson, 1980).8
Additionally, this page at Loyola University has a lot of great suggestions and examples about how to use signal phrases effectively.
1 Adapted from: Avoiding Plagiarism. (n.d.) About Plagiarism. Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://libguides.radford.edu/content.php?pid=48924&sid=387882